Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the second most common form of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after coronary artery disease. Arteries in the lower limbs or supplying major organs become narrowed as a result of deposits of cholesterol. Blood supply to the limbs is reduced, leading to cramping or pain in the leg and hip muscles during activity, […]

CD4 counts only need to be done once a year

Annual CD4 count tests (a measure of how well your immune system is performing) should be enough for people taking HIV treatment who have a suppressed viral load and a CD4 count above 250 cells/mm3. The CD4 count is used for monitoring health before beginning HIV treatment. Current UK guidelines are that anti-retroviral treatment (ART) should be […]

Low CD4 count during HIV therapy increases risk of virus-related non-AIDS cancers

A poor CD4 response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with an increased risk of virus-related non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC), US investigators report in AIDS. The authors recommend that people living with HIV who have low CD4 counts should be intensively screened for virus-related malignancies. The most frequently-occurring virus-related malignancies are those caused by human papilloma virus […]

Older age associated with bigger increases in viral load and bigger falls in CD4 count in patients not taking HIV treatment

In people who are antiretroviral naive (have not started HIV treatment), HIV infection usually involves a steady increase in viral load accompanied by a fall in CD4 cell count. If HIV therapy is not started, this leads to the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) and ultimately, AIDS-related death. Routine HIV care should therefore involve the […]

HIV Monitoring Every Six Months

HIV treatment guidelines have traditionally recommended that people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) should have their viral load and CD4 count monitored typically every three months. Less frequent monitoring could reduce cost and improve quality of life by requiring fewer medical appointments but, conversely, there was concern that adherence could decline and virological failure or toxicities […]