Thanks to effective antiretroviral treatment, HIV-associated dementia is now rare. However, some research has suggested that as many as 50% of people living with HIV have some form of (usually mild) neurocognitive impairment, such as memory loss or mild confusion. Other studies, though, show no difference between the HIV positive and negative populations.
To further clarify this question, investigators from two London hospitals compared recently the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment between HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men. They found that the number of people with cognitive impairment, and the amount of cognitive impairment, was little different between the two groups. This is a somewhat reassuring result.
The full article can be read here.