Thanks to improvements in HIV treatment and care, the outlook for many HIV-positive patients is now for a near normal lifespan. However, HIV-positive patients appear more likely to develop certain malignancies, including anal cancer, compared to their HIV-negative peers. A recent, large US study has found that the rate of anal cancer was significantly higher for both gay and straight men, compared to HIV-negative men. Within the HIV-positive group, the rates of anal cancer for gay men is significantly higher than for straight men, but rates for both gay and straight HIV-positive men are higher than for HIV-negative men.

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