Previous research has shown that problems with bone health are more common in people with HIV. Infection with HIV can reduce bone density, as can HIV treatment. The problem has been especially associated with protease inhibitors (PIs) and also with tenofovir, used in the combination pills TruvadaAtripla and Eviplera. Bone loss is also more common in women who have been through the menopause, because of hormonal changes. Now researchers have found that co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B or hepatitis C is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density in women. The researchers suggest that HIV care should take these factors into account, offering preventive treatment and care where necessary.

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